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Five Minutes Four Seconds

There's too much file system activity on macOS High Sierra.


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CUPERTINO (Rixstep) — What a shame Apple no longer run a dedicated development team for macOS: the system needs it. But when 2/3 of your billions come from iPhone, the priorities are easy to grasp.

It doesn't matter much what happens under the bonnet of iOS: the tappers don't see it. And could otherwise care less. And in a year or two, they'll toss out their old devices for new ones.

Busy, busy, busy, like AppleTalk.

But for those keen on operating systems and file systems, Apple's macOS High Sierra with the new APFS file system is cool to study. And as we wait for the official specs to be released, so we can dig in and tinker...

First Up

First up today is how the abhorrent colon-slash switcheroo still remains, despite the fact that APFS is not 'beige'.

Here's a partial list of a directory.

total 208
drwx------  9 rixstep  staff    288 21 Nov 02:50 .
drwx------  5 rixstep  staff    160 28 Oct 16:25 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 rixstep  staff   4925 21 Nov 02:50 2:20171121,00.shtml

As can be seen, the SHTML file has a colon (':') in its name. This is because it will ultimately be uploaded to directory /2 (the Learning Curve). Now watch what APFS does with it - or perhaps one should say 'Apple's glorious Finder'.



Ever heard of an operating system where filenames appear different depending on? Welcome to the World of Apple™.

Of course the issue was formerly a legacy one: Apple's hierarchical filesystem (HFS) didn't admit of relative paths. The slash prefix (to denote 'root') wasn't optional. There was no such thing. All paths were full paths.

[Catch remnants of this in Terminal: navigate to a directory, remove it, create it again. Terminal will lose it - it's still beige. Ed.]

And just to make things as dicey as can be, Apple substituted the traditional slash as component separator for the colon.

Meaning of course that Apple couldn't have colons in filenames whilst NeXT's Unix could. (Yes it gets messy.)

Apple finally arrived at a place where no more change would be made: they changed both slash and colon to dash.

But now on APFS? Which doesn't have to worry about backward beige compatibility? Perhaps it's an attempt to compensate for backward filenames. But the current non-beige system has been in use for nigh on twenty years. Perhaps it's time to at last put the past in the past?

Five Minutes Four Seconds

But onto the topic at hand. High Sierra has a sophisticated logging system. That part's great. But what's it good for? More importantly: can it be turned off? Even more importantly: do you ever use it?

Rixstep's Tracker was run for a very short time on an essentially idling system. This turned out to be five minutes four seconds.

63 (sixty-three) files were created/modified in that brief period of time. On an essentially idling system. (To make things simple, only /private was tracked.)

 Start: Mon Nov 20 07:11:57 2017
  Stop: Mon Nov 20 07:17:01 2017
Target:
 Paths: /private

Accessed

Tracker's exported readouts are divided into three categories: accessed, changed, modified. Accessed is the time a filesystem item's last been accessed (something Apple's HI group decided, after nearly 50 years, to rename 'last opened'). Changed is the timestamp when an item's inode information's been changed. Modified is when an item was last modified (or created).

The full list of accessed items is below. It is not germane to the topic at hand, but a few things do look curious. Such as why is the system going through package receipts? (gkopaque.bundle would seem to be connected to gaoler gatekeeper.)

Accessed
--------
/private/etc/periodic/daily
/private/etc/periodic/daily/199.clean-fax
/private/etc/periodic/daily/140.clean-rwho
/private/etc/periodic/daily/110.clean-tmps
/private/etc/periodic/daily/310.accounting
/private/etc/periodic/daily/420.status-network
/private/etc/periodic/daily/130.clean-msgs
/private/etc/periodic/daily/430.status-rwho
/private/etc/periodic/daily/999.local
/private/etc/periodic/daily/400.status-disks
/private/etc/periodic/weekly
/private/etc/periodic/weekly/320.whatis
/private/etc/periodic/weekly/999.local
/private/etc/auto_master
/private/etc/syslog.conf
/private/etc/sudoers.d
/private/etc/bashrc_Apple_Terminal
/private/etc/asl
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.mkb.internal
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.DuetHeuristic-BM
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.cdscheduler
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.applepushservice
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.install
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.family.asl
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.callhistory.asl.conf
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.contacts.ContactsUICore
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.authd
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.eventmonitor
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.secinitd
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.coreduetd
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.mail
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.login.guest
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.coreaudio
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.DuetHeuristic-BM-OSX
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.performance
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.iokit.power
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.icloud.fmfd
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.contacts.ContactsAutocomplete
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.mkb
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.CoreDuetAdmissionControl
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.networking.networkextension.test
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.MessageTracer
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.networking.networkextension
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.networking.boringssl
/private/etc/asl/com.apple.clouddocs
/private/etc/security/audit_event
/private/etc/security/audit_class
/private/etc/security/audit_user
/private/etc/security/audit_control
/private/etc/group
/private/etc/auto_home
/private/etc/paths
/private/etc/pf.conf
/private/etc/sudoers
/private/etc/bashrc
/private/etc/newsyslog.d
/private/etc/newsyslog.d/wifi.conf
/private/etc/newsyslog.d/com.apple.slapconfig.conf
/private/etc/newsyslog.d/com.apple.slapd.conf
/private/etc/newsyslog.d/com.apple.xscertd.conf
/private/etc/newsyslog.d/files.conf
/private/etc/pam.d/login.term
/private/etc/pam.d/screensaver
/private/etc/pam.d/other
/private/etc/pam.d/checkpw
/private/etc/pam.d/sudo
/private/etc/pam.d/authorization
/private/etc/defaults/periodic.conf
/private/etc/networks
/private/etc/autofs.conf
/private/etc/profile
/private/etc/nfs.conf
/private/etc/asl.conf
/private/etc/hosts
/private/etc/pf.os
/private/etc/pf.anchors/com.apple
/private/etc/ntp.conf
/private/etc/master.passwd
/private/etc/cups
/private/etc/man.conf
/private/etc/passwd
/private/etc/newsyslog.conf
/private/etc/notify.conf
/private/var/spool/cups
/private/var/msgs
/private/var/db/receipts
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.Numbers4.plist
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.Keynote7.plist
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.MobileAssets.plist
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.iMovie_AppStore.plist
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.Xcode.plist
/private/var/db/receipts/com.apple.pkg.Pages6.plist
/private/var/db/gkopaque.bundle
/private/var/db/gkopaque.bundle/Contents
/private/var/db/gkopaque.bundle/Contents/Resources
/private/var/db/gkopaque.bundle/Contents/Info.plist
/private/var/db/gkopaque.bundle/Contents/version.plist
/private/var/db/BootCaches/RootExtra.logical_playlist
/private/var/db/SystemPolicyConfiguration/migration.plist
/private/var/db/.MASManifest
/private/var/db/DuetActivityScheduler/DuetActivitySchedulerClassC.db
/private/var/db/dyld/dyld_shared_cache_x86_64h
/private/var/db/awdd/anonlogs
/private/var/db/awdd/staging
/private/var/db/awdd/metriclogs
/private/var/db/com.apple.xpc.launchd/loginitems.501.plist
/private/var/db/com.apple.xpc.launchd/disabled.plist
/private/var/db/com.apple.xpc.launchd/disabled.248.plist
/private/var/db/com.apple.xpc.launchd/disabled.501.plist
/private/var/db/mds/messages/501/se_SecurityMessages
/private/var/db/mds/system/mdsDirectory.db
/private/var/db/mds/system/mdsObject.db
/private/var/db/lockdown
/private/var/db/auth.db
/private/var/db/diagnostics/timesync
/private/var/db/diagnostics/HighVolume
/private/var/db/gke.bundle/Contents/Resources/gke.auth
/private/var/db/DifferentialPrivacy/DifferentialPrivacyClassC.db
/private/var/db/DifferentialPrivacy/Reports
/private/var/db/DifferentialPrivacy/Reports/Retired
/private/var/db/uuidtext
/private/var/db/uuidtext/69
/private/var/db/uuidtext/93
/private/var/db/uuidtext/34
/private/var/db/uuidtext/9D
/private/var/db/uuidtext/D1
/private/var/db/uuidtext/D8
/private/var/db/uuidtext/CF
/private/var/db/uuidtext/FB
/private/var/db/uuidtext/ED
/private/var/db/uuidtext/C1
/private/var/db/uuidtext/20
/private/var/db/uuidtext/27
/private/var/db/uuidtext/28
/private/var/db/uuidtext/72
/private/var/db/uuidtext/6E
/private/var/db/uuidtext/5B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/37
/private/var/db/uuidtext/08
/private/var/db/uuidtext/52
/private/var/db/uuidtext/A0
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F1
/private/var/db/uuidtext/CB
/private/var/db/uuidtext/83
/private/var/db/uuidtext/76
/private/var/db/uuidtext/8B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/dsc
/private/var/db/uuidtext/25
/private/var/db/dslocal
/private/var/db/dslocal/nodes
/private/var/db/dslocal/nodes/Default
/private/var/db/fud/com.apple.MobileAccessoryUpdater.AppleEAAccessoryUpdater
/private/var/db/fud/com.apple.USBCAccessoryFirmwareUpdater
/private/var/db/fud/com.apple.MobileAccessoryUpdater.StandaloneHIDFudPlugins
/private/var/db/PreviousSystemVersion.plist
/private/var/db/CoreDuet/Knowledge/knowledge.755092D2-829C-590D-B9FE-CBB835933584.plist
/private/var/db/CoreDuet/Knowledge/knowledgeC.db
/private/var/db/CoreDuet/Knowledge/knowledgeC.db-wal
/private/var/db/CoreDuet/People/interactionC.db
/private/var/db/systemstats/current_boot_uuid
/private/var/db/crls/crlcache2.db
/private/var/log/displaypolicy
/private/var/log/com.apple.xpc.launchd
/private/var/log/CoreDuet
/private/var/folders/***/0/com.apple.notificationcenter/db2/db
/private/var/folders/***/0/com.apple.routined/Cache/defaults.plist
/private/var/folders/***/0/com.apple.routined/Cache/Cloud.sqlite
/private/var/folders/***/0/com.apple.routined/Cache/Local.sqlite-wal
/private/var/folders/***/0/com.apple.dock.launchpad/db/db
/private/var/folders/***/Cleanup At Startup
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Xfile/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Xfile/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Xfile/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Xfile/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.trustd/ocspcache.sqlite3
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.dt.IDECacheDeleteAppExtension/com.apple.DeveloperTools/9.1-9B55/Xcode/CachedSpecifications-IDECacheDeleteAppExtension
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.ncplugin.stocks/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.Spotlight/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.Spotlight/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.Spotlight/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.Spotlight/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.notificationcenterui/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.notificationcenterui/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.notificationcenterui/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.notificationcenterui/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.FontRegistry/font
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.FontRegistry/fontregistry.user
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.appstore/manifest.plist
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.systemuiserver/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.systemuiserver/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.systemuiserver/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.systemuiserver/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.loginwindow/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.loginwindow/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.loginwindow/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.loginwindow/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.scriptmanager2.le.cache
/private/var/folders/zz
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000b000002r/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n000010r000086/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000sm00006d/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000b400002s/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000c4000031/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n000003000000r/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000s800006_/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000084000021/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n000011800008_/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n000010w000087/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000y800007k/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000108000082/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000114000089/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000z000007r/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n000006w00001q/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000th00006m/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000xc00007b/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n00000bh00002w/T
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000000000000/0/com.apple.LaunchServices-219-v2.csstore
/private/var/run/syslog.pid
/private/var/run/utmpx
/private/var/tmp
/private/var/rwho
/private/tmp/com.apple.launchd.CTz8zIEwMi
/private/tmp/com.apple.launchd.5wAmMqPuS8

Changed

As the system was effectively idling for those five minutes four seconds, no inode info was changed.

Modified

The modified listing is eminently more interesting (and better populated). Note that proprietary (system-specific) path components have been, as above, replaced with '***'.

Modified
--------
/private/var/db/Spotlight
/private/var/db/powerlog/Library/BatteryLife/CurrentPowerlog.PLSQL-wal
/private/var/db/diagnostics/Special/0000000000000021.tracev3
/private/var/db/diagnostics/Persist/0000000000000010.tracev3
/private/var/db/uuidtext/3B/6D45400AE2358C87933AF661C8F951
/private/var/db/uuidtext/FE/F349208E223E709FE2552800B9A460
/private/var/db/uuidtext/16/6F274224133DA79F21675DD962036F
/private/var/db/uuidtext/7B/E6B6AA12DD365CA5C5C8C8A2293D0B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/9A/CA0127E687388594751D5E4DD83168
/private/var/db/uuidtext/9A/79C2510A7335848F421652E5BAB381
/private/var/db/uuidtext/3A/000F71E4D137CCB62CFAE7FC81C26C
/private/var/db/uuidtext/6C/791AD6426B34A495CC9B8B049A5489
/private/var/db/uuidtext/A7/A58DC0EEB3352CAAF1851A24A8ACF0
/private/var/db/uuidtext/B7/3EB177938B3A989405789F729A0C3B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F0/24C78020883E28A8DA1D7DB12E39CB
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F7/1B60DC303734C3ABB4B011CDF19866
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F8/8F8299441C3E1AAEBEAFBB858AE1EA
/private/var/db/uuidtext/40/75E44E5F45386DB289C1E320CB1709
/private/var/db/timed
/private/var/db/systemstats/C862C9BA-8F68-468D-A3B3-3D3AEEE96161.microstackshots.XXXXXX.gz
/private/var/log/powermanagement/2017.11.20.asl
/private/var/log/powermanagement/StoreData
/private/var/log/asl/2017.11.20.G80.asl
/private/var/log/asl/StoreData
/private/var/log/DiagnosticMessages/2017.11.20.asl
/private/var/log/DiagnosticMessages/StoreData
/private/var/log/system.log
/private/var/folders/***/T
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.trustd/ocspcache.sqlite3-wal
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.trustd/mds
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.trustd/mds/mdsDirectory.db
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.apple.trustd/mds/mdsObject.db
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Tracker/com.apple.metal/libraries.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Tracker/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.maps
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Tracker/com.apple.metal/Intel(R) Iris(TM) Graphics 6000/functions.data
/private/var/folders/***/C/com.rixstep.Tracker/com.apple.metal/libraries.data
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000000000000/Cleanup At Startup
/private/var/folders/zz/zyxvpxvq6csfxvn_n0000000000000/Cleanup At Startup/com.apple.backupd.filechecklist

It's easy to see where the bulk of that filesystem activity comes from: the logging system.

What are logging systems good for? Why, to log things!

The uuidtext hive uses 256 subdirectories numbered 00 to FF inclusive. Each subdirectory seems to have a few (2-3) files with contents such as below.

ôàwf∏ÿBTMMPortInUseAgentBTMMPortInUseAgent: SCDynamicStoreCreate failed, %s%@/%@/Protocol/%@/%@/.*PortInUse
/com.apple.UserEventAgent.BTMMPortInUseAgentBTMM: can't find bundleNOTIFICATION_HEADERNOTIFICATION_MESSAGECAN
CELDISABLECFUserNotificationCreate() failed, %dCFUserNotificationCreateRunLoopSource() failedBTMMPortInUseAge
nt: can't find user notificationBTMMDisableappBTMMPortInUseAgent: couldn't find URLBTMMPortInUseAgent: failed
to disable Back To My Mac/System/Library/UserEventPlugins/BTMMPortInUseAgent.plugin/Contents/MacOS/BTMMPortIn
UseAgent

These files are populated with data that comes from deeper in the system, at /var/db/diagnostics. Filenames in the subdirectories Persist and Special seem to be serialised and capable of monster values before hitting turnover. They're composed of 16 (sixteen) hexadecimal digits with '.tracev3' tacked on at the end.

How to read trace3 files? Go ask StackExchange.

https://apple.stackexchange.com/questions/268089/how-to-read-tracev3-binary-log-files

log show <FILE>

The log command is very interesting, very powerful, and very useful.

log(1)                    BSD General Commands Manual                   log(1)

NAME
     log -- Access system wide log messages created by os_log, os_trace and
     other logging systems.

log help provides a good summary.

usage:
    log 

examples:
    log show
    log collect
    log erase --all
    log help stream

commands:
    collect, config, erase, show, stream, stats

further help:
    log help 

log erase can be used to remove all logs. log collect can be used to archive them. This archive can be quite the monster.

'Showing' such an archive and redirecting output can easily result in a text file in excess of a gigabyte.

log stats is very cool.

Unified Logging

Apple's new unified logging (and activity tracing) system, introduced at WWDC 2016, targets all Apple systems. It's designed to be as unobtrusive as possible and to reduce the 'observer effect' (think Heisenberg for computer science). And in many ways, it meets its goals. But it does make it difficult to see the forest for the trees when it's not logging you're after. And - so far at any rate - it can't be turned off.

As if the Apple engineers can't conceive of a scenario where you wouldn't want it to run.

But, obviously, there exist many such scenarios.

Turn it Off?

There's a way to turn it off?

sudo log config --mode "level:off"

Things still run pretty much as before. This after three minutes of system idling.

Modified
--------
/private/var/db/diagnostics/Special/0000000000000024.tracev3
/private/var/db/diagnostics/timesync/0000000000000002.timesync
/private/var/db/diagnostics/Persist/0000000000000011.tracev3
/private/var/db/uuidtext/58/CC0E0317B43D7A84C47DA1275642C0
/private/var/db/uuidtext/BB/88FC65AC78308A82030DAD82CCAC19
/private/var/db/uuidtext/FE/F349208E223E709FE2552800B9A460
/private/var/db/uuidtext/7B/E6B6AA12DD365CA5C5C8C8A2293D0B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/9A/CA0127E687388594751D5E4DD83168
/private/var/db/uuidtext/9A/79C2510A7335848F421652E5BAB381
/private/var/db/uuidtext/6C/791AD6426B34A495CC9B8B049A5489
/private/var/db/uuidtext/A7/A58DC0EEB3352CAAF1851A24A8ACF0
/private/var/db/uuidtext/B7/3EB177938B3A989405789F729A0C3B
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F0/24C78020883E28A8DA1D7DB12E39CB
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F7/1B60DC303734C3ABB4B011CDF19866
/private/var/db/uuidtext/F8/8F8299441C3E1AAEBEAFBB858AE1EA
/private/var/db/uuidtext/40/75E44E5F45386DB289C1E320CB1709

Apple's Unified Logging needs one more feature.

About Rixstep

Stockholm/London-based Rixstep are a constellation of programmers and support staff from Radsoft Laboratories who tired of Windows vulnerabilities, Linux driver issues, and cursing x86 hardware all day long. Rixstep have many years of experience behind their efforts, with teaching and consulting credentials from the likes of British Aerospace, General Electric, Lockheed Martin, Lloyds TSB, SAAB Defence Systems, British Broadcasting Corporation, Microsoft, IBM, Barclays Bank, and Sony/Ericsson.

Rixstep and Radsoft products are or have been in use by Sweden's Royal Mail, Sony/Ericsson, the US Department of Defense, the offices of the US Supreme Court, the Government of Western Australia, the German Federal Police, Verizon Wireless, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Microsoft Corporation, the New York Times, Apple Inc, Oxford University, and hundreds of research institutes around the globe. See here.

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CONTACT INFO:
John Cattelin
Media Contact
contact@rixstep.com

See Also
Apple: Apple File System Guide
mac4n6: Introducing Unified Logging
Apple: Unified Logging and Activity Tracing

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