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Linux is Utter Crap

The Mac file system HFS is utter crap, says Linux. How wrong can he be? It's possible to look closer at the issue without needing a PhD in Torvalds to understand.

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When asked to compare Microsoft V*STA and Apple OS X Leopard Linux Torvalds mentioned the Apple file system HFS and called it 'utter crap'. Why would he say such a thing? This article attempts to delve into what prompted this highly controversial - not to say disrespectful - remark.

Apple make the best computer hardware and software. Period. Their computers are far better than anyone else's. Making it a perennial mystery why anyone would not want to use Apple computers. Their software - and their operating system code - are by far the most advanced the world of computer science has ever seen. IBM couldn't have done this; Digital Equipment couldn't have done this; Hewlett-Packard couldn't have done this; NeXT couldn't have done this; no one could have - only Apple. And they did.

There are those who will say Apple's OS X Leopard is based on the NeXT operating system. This is categorically untrue. NeXT's operating system was a user hostile mess until Apple took a look at the code and decided to change it. Today there isn't any code from NeXT left in OS X Leopard - it's all Apple's. NeXT had a good idea - but they didn't have the 'Apple touch' to turn that rudimentary incomplete idea into something great as Apple did.

Perhaps the best thing about OS X Leopard is the file system HFS. Sometimes it's called HFS; other times it's called HFS+ or HFS Plus; other times it's called HFSX or HFS Extended; they're all very similar (if not identical). As HFS is the most advanced file system in the world it's hard to see what the Linux has against it.

Here are some possibilities.

1. HFS still confuses colons and slashes. Unix uses slashes as component separators; HFS uses colons. Because the slash is a component separator in Unix you cannot use it in file names. But because HFS uses the colon you actually can use the slash. Here's where it gets dicey: for Apple must make it look like slashes are disallowed even though they aren't and simultaneously pretend colons are allowed even though they're not.

This is a 'transformation' that at times seems to succeed in fooling users but unfortunately it doesn't always fool them. You can't use a slash in a file name from the command line - but fortunately most Mac users hate the command line so they don't see this. Trying to use a slash in the 'GUI' is OK because the GUI sees nothing wrong with them as slashes are OK with HFS. But sometimes the slashes are turned into dashes instead. Slashes - dashes. Easy to remember. And when Unix says a file name has a colon in it Apple's GUI will say it has a slash in it. And so forth.

This is like a double hall of mirrors. At one level the file names have colons; at another level right below the first they appear to have slashes; at the final level - at the file system level - they have colons again.

There's no issue with this.

2. HFS can't describe relative paths. In Unix you often see things like '../foobar' to describe an alternate path at the same sibling or other level. You can use this notation from the command line or programmatically. This is because both the Unix shell and the file system admit of relative paths. And they can do this because they have a concept known as the 'current working directory'. Anytime you're at a command prompt you have a current working directory. The Unix command 'pwd' stands for 'print working directory' and if you use it you will see your current working directory. It won't print it on paper - it will print it on screen. This can be a bit confusing for Mac users but it's easy to understand: the Unix programmers who wrote the 'pwd' program were a bit illiterate and didn't understand what 'print' means. Get over it.

But this also means you can't 'step up' from your current location (working directory). And listing files in any one 'directory' becomes incredibly difficult. HFS paths always start at a root level. As there are no relative paths the slash (or colon) at the beginning to denote 'root' is not necessary - everything starts at the root directory. So a path like the following:


Assumes 'Users' is found in the root directory; 'steve' is found in the directory 'Users'; and 'Documents' is found in the directory 'Users:steve'. Commands such as 'cd ..:Downloads' would be ridiculous.

And there's another aspect to this. Namely to find any directory anywhere you must first locate its parent directory. HFS namely uses a binary tree type of on disk organisation where each binary hub has three nodes. This is rather revolutionary to outsiders as they assume 'binary' means 'two' and they can't grab that for Apple it means 'three'. This is only further evidence Apple have things no other computer company can ever have.

This get even murkier when you realise that of the three nodes on each hub the third one is never used. This is such a staggering concept that no one outside Apple is ever able to grasp it. First you redefine 'binary' to mean 'three' instead of 'two' so you can tack another node on each hub - and then you categorically forbid its use. As stated, this is a very advanced concept, so it's not surprising if outsiders can't grasp it. But rather than be confused they should only humble themselves in awe at the greatness of Apple.

3. HFS can't deal with the Unix 'one to many'. A cornerstone - some would say 'the' cornerstone - of Unix file systems is the fundamental distinction between a 'file' on disk - a physical file residing on particular sectors on particular tracks and heads - and a file name at a particular path to represent it.

In Unix any file name anywhere in any directory can be 'linked' to any preexisting file on disk - even if that physical file is already being linked to by another file name at another path somewhere.

Again: this is a cornerstone of the Unix. A crucial cornerstone. On OS X Leopard the following files in the 'Unix' directories are multi-linked.





These files cannot be stored in traditional HFS file systems as HFS presumes all physical files have one and only one file name anywhere. For this reason the gifted engineers at Apple have devised a bit of a 'quarantine' area for these Unix files. It's called '/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data'. That's its real name on HFS. The name changes at times because people like to pry where they're not welcome and Apple have to make sure nothing happens to this directory.

Inside '/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data' you will find things like the following.

/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/.
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/..
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode102946
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode102951
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode103023
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode105699
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode105703
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113501
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113502
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113504
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113509
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113510
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113512
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113515
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113517
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113520
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113521
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113525
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113534
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113535
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113536
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113537
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113538
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113540
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113542
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113543
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113546
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113552
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113553
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113555
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113556
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113557
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113558
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113559
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113560
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113561
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113562
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113563
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113564
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113565
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113566
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113567
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113568
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113569
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113570
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113571
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113573
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113574
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113577
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113578
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113583
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113584
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113585
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113589
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113598
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113599
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113600
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113601
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113602
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113603
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113604
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113605
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113640
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113641
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113642
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113646
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113647
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113649
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113662
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113671
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113676
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113677
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113678
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113681
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113682
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113683
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113708
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113709
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113714
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113749
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113755
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113758
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113759
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113761
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113762
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113763
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113764
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113765
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113766
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113767
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113768
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113769
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113770
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113771
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113784
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113785
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113797
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113803
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113806
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113809
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113815
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113817
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113818
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113819
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113820
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113821
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113822
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113823
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113824
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113825
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113826
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113827
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113828
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113829
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113830
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113831
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113832
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113833
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113834
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113835
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113836
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113837
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113838
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113839
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113840
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113841
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113842
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113845
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113889
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113890
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113891
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113892
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113924
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113929
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113932
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113938
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113940
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113949
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113950
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113957
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113960
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113961
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113967
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113968
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113969
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113979
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113980
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode113999
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114005
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114006
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114009
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114013
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114014
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114017
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114018
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114021
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114024
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114025
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114029
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114030
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114031
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114033
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114042
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114051
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114052
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114069
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114072
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114073
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114074
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114087
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114088
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114089
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114090
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114110
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114111
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114112
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114113
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114125
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114126
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114127
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114128
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114144
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114152
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114155
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114158
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114159
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114162
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114165
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114168
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114169
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114170
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114171
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114172
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114183
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114184
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114185
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114202
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114203
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114208
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114211
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114212
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114213
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114214
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114215
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114226
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114227
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114228
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114229
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114230
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114231
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114245
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114246
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114247
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114248
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114249
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114250
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114251
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114252
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114253
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114254
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114255
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114256
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114257
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114258
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114259
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114260
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114261
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114262
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114263
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114264
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114265
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114266
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114337
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114338
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114339
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114354
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114363
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114364
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114365
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114366
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114367
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114368
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114369
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114370
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114371
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114372
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114373
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114374
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114375
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114376
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114377
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114378
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114379
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114380
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114381
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114382
/␀␀␀␀HFS+ Private Data/iNode114383
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And to further ensure nosy people don't poke around and find things they're not supposed to find the 'Finder info' on this secret directory is very special. The directory is kept hidden with the Finder flag 'kIsInvisible' and its name is also locked with the Finder flag 'kNameLocked'. Neither of these flags have anything to do with the Unix; if it were left up to the Unix this directory couldn't be protected!

The 'location' of this directory - even if it weren't kept hidden - is still so far off the beaten track no one would ever find it. All they'd see in such case would be a scroll bar in the Finder they couldn't explain because you don't seem to be able to scroll to anything (or make the scroll bar go away). The coordinates (in Finder views) of this directory are namely set to horizontal 22,460 and vertical 22,460. And that's in pixels. And considering most computer screens are about two thousand pixels wide at most that means the directory is kept way the fuck out there. So it's safe.

Again: you can't do this on the Unix. If you want to hide something you simply can't. And the Linux doesn't have the Finder either. So there. All the Linux has is a number of inferior file managers and the Linux doesn't have file systems with Finder info so you can't tell a Finder which doesn't exist where to display a hidden file or directory that's not supposed to be displayed anyway because even if the Finder existed on the Linux it simply wouldn't listen. So there too.

But the secret directory keeps all files that are 'multi-linked' and this - in theory only - represents a disadvantage. A 'way in which Apple HFS can be construed to be utter crap'. But remember: that's in theory only.

If you're working from a command prompt - in theory only - the location of the file - in the secret directory or not - makes no difference. If you're working in the GUI then you can't save to files that are secretly located in this hidden directory. Again: this is because HFS assumes a 'one to one' relationship between physical files and file names and paths on disk.

On the other hand OS X Leopard is able to track file and path changes on open files because it doesn't worry about stupid things like file names and paths. It only cares about the so called 'catalog node IDs' and from these 'CNIDs' it can always extrapolate back to the 'Unix' path and file name.

Of course the Apple haters will point out that when a file is 'multi-linked' OS X Leopard can only point to one of the possibly many paths and file names and most likely won't be pointing to the one you have in mind; but this is immaterial. For the most part Apple's file system HFS combines the best of traditional Unix file systems with the world famous user friendliness of Apple products to produce a file system and operating system that can't be matched by any other computer company today. Because quite simply HFS is an Apple product and so the others can't use it.

4. HFS corrupts easily. This is a recurring complaint about HFS file systems. It's pointed out that Mac users traditionally don't worry about defragmenting their hard drives (the words 'defrag' and 'defragment' aren't even in the Apple spell checker) because attempting to do so most often results in disk corruption - meaning it's time to pull out that old copy of DiskWarrior again. Whilst Windows users have always defragged their hard drives - and Windows itself always ships with a default free disk defragger - Mac users either haven't heard of such a thing or don't want to hear about it ever again or both.

But today HFS incorporates a number of features of the BeOS file system (also including journaling) which means HFS can automatically defragment files as they're saved to disk. This procedure is used only on files of 20 MB or more so as to save time on file saves. If a file of this size has too many fragments it is automatically repositioned on the hard drive to reduce the number of fragments and Windows doesn't have that feature.

5. Resource forks. Linux hasn't said anything specifically about resource forks but presumably he hates them too. Resource forks are 'alternate' streams on files. They represent data stored on a per file basis the computer user normally cannot see or control. This in itself would normally be a cause for concern - and perhaps it's only because Linux is misinformed and ignorant on this issue that he hates resource forks. But if an operating system weren't secure then yes, they could be exploited to store secret messages such as 'oompa' or 'loompa'. Yes they could be used in a nefarious fashion - but only if the Mac user - most often a Windows switcher who doesn't know anything about Macs - lets the evil malware onto the computer in the first place. And real Mac users would never do that. This complaint is like saying pedestrian crossings are dangerous because people can get run over by cars or like saying you need 'walk' and 'don't walk' signs. Look at the French at Place de la Concorde - do they need signs like that? Of course not. It's obvious Linux has never been to Paris.

Resource forks are there to enhance the user experience. They make working with Macs more fun. Today they're not called resource forks anymore anyway - they're called 'extended attributes'. Apple have contributed a new API to the Unix for accessing and dealing with generic extended attributes.

And whilst resource forks are not transportable to other file systems (because no other company has such an advanced file system) the data kept in resource forks (or extended attributes) is mostly of a 'user experience enhancing' nature and little is lost in transit as other systems aren't going to be as user friendly as Macs anyway Macs are cool.

It's also mentioned from time to time that Mac users can send mail attachments that have resource forks. Undoubtedly Linux has received some of these. When an inferior operating system receives a mail attachment with resource forks the attachment manifests itself as two separate files. And these files can appear to have the same name even if they don't. The second file is actually a so called 'Apple double' with the prefix '._' (dot underscore) so HFS can interpret its significance correctly. Again: it's mostly Windows switchers who don't know how to send mail attachments with OS X Leopard: you're supposed to send 'Windows friendly attachments' which effectively removes the resource fork from the file before it's attached. And this so as to not confuse the Windows users unnecessarily - they already have way too much to worry about. And as for the fact these 'stripped' attachments are to be used not only on Windows but on the Linux but are still called 'Windows friendly': the Linux is simply a layer on top of Windows anyway so the terminology is actually correct. See this link for further information about the relationship between Windows and the Linux.

In summary it's hard to see what Linux was getting at. Why call HFS 'utter crap'? There is only one possible reason.


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